Who Built the Pyramids and When?

Giza Necropolis DrawingIn this approach we will find some fascinating details as well as some that will confound the reader. The question should come to mind; “how can it be both times?” In order to appreciate the wholeness of this aspect of our pondering we need to look at a world-wide fascination of ancient peoples. What is this world-wide phenomenon? In one word, it is Astronomy.

As we mentioned in the previous post the oldest civilized peoples all were very adept students of the stars. Their rituals and beliefs very much focused on the skies. They measured the movement of the Sun, the Moon, and the constellations. Their were Sun gods and Moon goddesses and the stars were home to the Gods. They followed the path of the Sun, the Moon and the constellations across the skies. They knew the cycles of the Sun and Moon and Earth. They could predict the eclipses and even the arrival of comets. One of the most famous stories known to us today tells of 3 magi that travel for 2 years to find a baby born under very special astronomical conditions. It has been theorized that the ‘bright star’ the magi followed to the birth place of this special child was a comet or a conjunction of planets with certain constellations, this is merely mentioned to show that the stars were of great influence across the peoples of the world in ancient times.

egypt-godsMoving forward, we know that the Egyptians believed that in Zep Tepi, or the First Time, that the Gods came to Earth and lived here and created people and lived with the people. This belief is similar to many other peoples’ beliefs about how we came to be. And it is another belief that after Zep Tepi that the Gods returned to the Stars. This belief is probably what made astronomy so important for them. In effect to study the stars or heavenly bodies was to study the Gods.

Since mainstream Egyptologists consider the Zep Tepi to be ‘just a story’, even though they used the lists of the Pharaohs in the same texts as historical reference to real persons, they have not looked seriously at the events from a historical point of view, neither have they tried to figure out when Zep Tepi occurred. This of course leaves us wondering how much of Zep Tepi is accurate and just when did Zep Tepi happen. Remember that Homer’s poems The Iliad and Odyssey were just stories until the real city of Troy was discovered in Turkey. The discovery proved that at least in regard to the description of Troy, Homer was accurate. It has since been discovered that most of the 10 cities that were mentioned in Homer’s prose were real cities and contemporaries of Troy. Why do we care about the cities in lines of Homer being real? It is proof that just because we have not found the proof of the stories of the ancients this does not mean they are not true. How does this relate to our search of Giza? Well, regarding the search for Zep Tepi, maybe it relates very well. There has been no search for Zep Tepi, but there has been questions regarding when all or part of the Necropolis was constructed.

Sphinx_partially_excavated2We have questioned the erosion of the Sphinx, as well as, its placement and the lay out of the Pyramids. The Sphinx has the body of a lion, we do not know what the original head of the creature might have been, it is the author’s belief that statements naming Kufu, Khafre or any other pharaoh as the model for the face are incorrect and without real merit. However, for now the matter of whose face is or whose face should be bore by the immortal lion is mostly irrelevant. That being said there may come a day when the discovery of the truth makes it very relevant and helps to explain the complete secrets that have thus far eluded us. If you allow for the known facts, a lion’s body and the high interest with the stars and the lion looking east, this points to an epoch of time, and that is when the Sun rested in the sign of Leo. The alignment of the Pyramids in relation to the stars of the belt of Orion, also point to the location of Orion during a specific time in the past that can also be found during the time of Leo. These 2 factors would support a time of approximately 10,500 BCE. The builders left other clues for those that are willing to listen; the very elaborate ‘ventilation’ shafts of the King’s and Queen’s Chambers ironically enough have doors, an odd thing for ventilation, and point to other specific points that would be reasonable to assume were of interest to the ancients. The points in the skies where these shafts point are to the exact locations of very important known stars. These stars that the shafts point to are Sirus, and Beta Ursa Minor from the Queen’s Chamber and Zeta Orion and Alpha Draconis from the King’s Chamber, but during the epoch of 2500BCE.

Diagram of the Great PyramidToday, in our time of super computers and high tech gadgets and programs and knowledge we have software that will show us the skies for any time that we want. If you want to know how the heavens looked over your house in the time of the dinosaurs you can and if you want to know what you might see in 50 or 100 years you can see that as well. What an amazing and wonderful thing! However, we have yet to find any similar technological items from ancient times; therefore, how did the builders of the Giza Necropolis know either what the skies looked like in 10,500BCE or how they would look in 2,500BCE? Is it not interesting that both times seem to be marked in the eternal monuments. What was so very important about the 2 different times in history for the ancient Egyptians? If the builders were in 10,500BCE how did they know where the stars would have been 8,000 years in the future? Yet, if the builders were of 2,500BCE, how did they know where Orion was located 8,000 years prior; and how did they know the measurements of the earth?


Exploring the Necropolis

After our visit to the Pyramids we will wander over to an even more mysterious enigma. This one as regal and royal in time and history as any pharaoh. Appearing to have been craved right out of the limestone that encloses him; the Sphinx rises like an immortal warrior protecting ancient secrets. The ancient secrets are for another post, for now we focus on the warrior itself.

With the body of nature’s king of beasts and the head of a man, supposedly a specific man; the Sphinx has been impressing visitors and conquerors alike since time immortal it seems. The first modern excavation of the sight was in 1817 supervised by the Italian Captain Giovanni Battista Caviglia, this uncovered the structure to the chest. Latter excavations finally fully exposed the grand beast in the early 20th century. The whole structure is 240 feet (73 meters) long and 66 feet (20 meters) high.

sphinxIf we accept the dates given by modern Egyptologists, the Sphinx was carved out of his limestone ridge circa 2500BCE. The accepted date for the beginning of Egyptian culture, by the same experts is circa 3000BCE. This means that ancient Egyptians went from being wandering hunter gathers, with no civilization, to one of the most enduring societies in histories, with such precise construction methods that their works still stand, in less than 500 years. That is an astonishingly amazing endeavor. Some can say, look at what we accomplished in the last 100 years; and while it is certainly true that humans have achieved some extraordinary strides in the last century, we did not begin the 20th century lacking aspects of civilization, at least not technological ones.

Some of the earliest researchers of the Giza Necropolis, whom seem to have had much more open minds and sought truth and knowledge over fame and fortune, believed that the Sphinx and other construction within the plaza area predated the traditional construction dates. However, as is the case more and more, if the ‘evidence’ does not fit the stated ‘facts’ put forth by the experts then the ‘evidence’ cannot be trusted or is not accurate. One such example, the Dream Stella, which was almost a millennium after the time of Khafre, and which is no longer complete and cannot be studied, supposedly stated that the Sphinx was linked to Khafre and is accepted by most modern Egyptologists as proof of their date, as well as, the builder. However, there is the Inventory Stella, also a much later artifact, which states that the Sphinx was already buried in the sand before the reign of Khafre. Since this contradicts the mainstream ‘facts’ it is dismissed as Late Period historical revisionism and therefore not trustworthy.

This attitude that certain artifacts of a specific type are proof if they match the experts’ story, but are not trustworthy if they do not, can be seen in all archaeological areas of exploration. If you look you can even see that within certain sources the ‘experts’ will take only the lines or words that support ‘facts’ as being accurate or trustworthy and the bits that don’t fit are just fluff or added fanciful decoration to enhance the status of the rulers or people or event. The wonder is that these ‘experts’ not only manage to maintain their status or even increase it, they have the power to destroy the credibility of any whom question the blatant whims of the ‘experts’.

south wall large via graham hancock com
South Enclosure Wall via forums grahamhancock.com

Are there more scientific methods for dating the age of our immortal guardian? Of course there are, however, there is controversy there as well. It is pretty clear that most ‘experts’ in one field of study NEVER want an ‘expert’ from another field to encroach on their turf. And the Sphinx is one of those areas. The fact is that the Sphinx is carved from limestone, this means that geologists should have some knowledge of the structure as a whole, including the age. The problem is that some geologists that have studied the Sphinx from a purely geologic point of view, since that is their area, state that our immortal guardian has stood the test of time that would make the title of immortal or timeless apropos.

Their foundation for stating that the Sphinx could be much much older than Egyptologists claim, is that the weathering evident on the enclosure walls of the creature is not from wind and sand, which would have been much smoother and horizontal, but from water, specifically rainfall and rain run-off. The amount of rainfall and the time over which it would have needed to accrue means that the climate of the area could not be arid desert. This previous statement is one of disagreement among geologists as well as paleoclimatologists. Another theory, by other geologists is that it was salt crystallization that created the ‘ridges’ of erosion. However, it seems clear that the whole of the theories of geologists that have studied the warrior and will actually speak up about their opinions seem to follow the same conclusion that he is older than the date given by Egyptologists.

Sphnix via Daily Mail
via Daily Mail

The last enigma regarding our immortal warrior is his head. The general consensus regarding the face/head of the Sphinx is that it is the likeness of Khufu. In its current state, this may actually be an accurate statement. Yet, there are differences between the known statue of Khufu located in the Cairo Museum and the current Sphinx face. Furthermore and more important to our point of view, there are doubts to any logical mind that the current face of the Sphinx was the original face fashioned by the creators. What is the proof for such a claim? Proportion and resilience; if you look at all the carvings and statues left from the Ancient Egyptians their creations are amazingly perfect in their scale and design. Even the body of the Sphinx is amazing in its design, if age has diminished its perfection. Such care and skill would not have been limited to the body and ignored with the most important part of the sculpture, the head. All one has to do is to look at the profile of the Sphinx to see that the current head is small and imperfect for the body. The stone material is harder limestone from that of the body and should be more durable. The face seems to have sustained a lot more damage than the body, some of that could be attributed to the fact that the head was visible over a greater amount of time than the body. There are also claims that Napoleon’s men used the head for target practice.
It seems that the Riddle of the Sphinx may never give up its secrets. But that may be the purpose of the grand beast, to encourage and entice us to seek answers and to ask questions, to wonder and ponder our past and in doing so maybe find our future.